A written representation of an instrumental performance. There are two types of shōga, those that include the percussion instruments, the kotsuzumi and ōtsuzumi and taiko, and those that include the fue. Taking the fue as an example, the performers understand a fue shōga exactly as they would understand an actual performance. For example, the shōga “wo hya ra I hi u ya,” does not express absolute pitch as “do-re-mi” in Western musical notation, nor specific fingering, but when sung together, does indicate a specific melody. During practice, the shōga is first memorized, after which the actual performance is acquired through practice with the instrument.